A pound sterling is the official unit of currency in the UK. 100 pence (like pennies) make a pound. Pence (also called 'p'), coin units come in 2, 5,10, 20, and 50 pence denominations and also £1 and £2 coins. Paper currency comes in £5, £10, £20, and £50 denominations.
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Scotland has its own paper notes with the same value amounts, but English ones are accepted in Scotland. It's best to get rid of your Scottish ones before you journey back to England--they are sometimes frowned on in the south. The Isle of Man issues currency with its own imprint in the same denominations as the UK except for a £5 coin. UK money is legal tender on the island, but their money is not accepted in the UK.
Northern Ireland is, of course, part of the UK and has the same currency. Not so the Republic of Ireland. It has adopted the Euro.
The Euro is accepted in many business establishments in the UK, but not all, so to avoid a hassle, get your money changed into the local currency. Euro notes come in 5, 10, 20, 50 and up denominations. Coins are in the same denominations as the UK ones.
For information on the Royal Mint museum and purchasing collector coins visit the Royal Mint official website at: Royal Mint
The Bank of England's official website is Bank of England